Knee replacement, also known as total knee replacement or knee arthritis, is a surgery to restore a knee with arthritis. To cover the ends of the bone that form the knee joint and the kneecap, metal and plastic components are used. This surgery is possible for people with severe arthritis and severe knee injuries.
The knee joint may be affected by various types of arthritis. Osteoarthritis can lead to joint cartilage loss and fractures in the knees. This degenerative joint disease affects mostly middle-aged adults and older adults. Rheumatoid arthritis, which is an inflammation of the synovial and causes excessive synovial liquid, can lead to pain and stiffness. Traumatic arthritis, which is caused by injury to the joints, can cause damage.
The goal of knee replacementsurgery in order to repair the damaged areas of the knee joint and to relieve the pain from the knee that can’t control with other treatments is the ultimate goal.
Anatomy at the Knee
Joints are areas where two or more bone meet. Most joints are mobile, which allows the bones to move. The knee is essentially 2 long bones on each leg, which are held together with muscles, ligaments, or tendons. Each bone is covered by a layer of cartilage, which absorbs shocks and protects the knee.
There are 2 types of knee muscles: quadriceps (located in the front part of the thighs), which straighten the legs, and hamstring (located backside of the pants), which bends the leg at your knee.
Tendons are tough, connective tissue fibers that link bones and muscles. Ligaments are elastic bands formed from tissue that connect bone to bones. Some ligaments are designed to stabilize and protect the joints. Other ligaments restrict forward and backward movements of the tibia or shin bone.
The following parts make up the knee.
- Tibia: This is the lower leg’s shin bone.
- Femur: This is the thighbone (or upper leg) bone.
- Patella: This is the kneecap.
Cartilage: Cartilage is a type of tissue that covers the joint’s surface. Cartilage can reduce friction and movement in a joint.
Synovial membrane: The joint capsule is made up of tissue that lines and seals the joint. The synovial membrane secretes a fluid called synovial gel around the joint. This fluid is a clear and sticky fluid that helps to lubricate it.
Ligament: The ligament is a hard, elastic connective tissue that surrounds the joint to provide support and limit joint movement.
Tendon: Tendon is a kind of tough connective tissue that connects muscles to bone and controls the movement of the joint.
Meniscus: Meniscus refers to the curved part of cartilage between the knees and the other joints.
Why the Procedure?
Knee replacement surgery addresses pain and disability in the knee. Osteoarthritis is the most common reason that knee replacement surgery is required,
Osteoarthritis occurs when the joint cartilage is destroyed. Broken bones and cartilage may limit movement and can cause pain. A person with severe degenerative knee disease may be unable or unwilling to do activities that require the knee to be bent, such as bending, walking, or climbing stairs. The joint may be unstable and cause the knee to swell.
The knee joint can also become degenerated from other types of arthritis, like rheumatoid, or after a knee injury. The knee joint may also be irreparably damaged by fractures, torn and/or torn joints due to torn cartilage.